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浅析《周易》英译

减小字体 增大字体 作者:熊谊华,巢利斌,姚智军    来源:本站整理  发布时间:2018-6-25 12:35:57
yellow is the color of the earth and of the middle; it is the symbol of that which is reliable and genuine. The lower garment is inconspicuously decorated--the symbol of aristocratic reserve. When anyone is called upon to work in a prominent but not independent position, true success depends on the utmost discretion. A man´s genuineness and refinement should not reveal themselves directly; they should express themselves only indirectly as an effect from within.

黄,居“五色”之“中”,象征“中道”;裳,古代衣服是上衣下裳,故“裳”象征“谦下”;“黄是中之色,裳是下之饰。”[5](P34)“黄”是五色“青、黄、赤、白、黑”之一,古代以此五者为正色。 对于没有此文化背景的西方人来说,是不能理解的, 两个译本都采用了注释的翻译策略,在理本中,解释‘yellow´ is one of the five ‘correct´ colors应该加上 blue,yellow,red,white and black。“裳”是古人穿在下体的衣服(古人称上体之服为衣,下体之服为裳),象征谦下。而“The lower garment" is a symbol of humanity显得有点唐突。

相反,贝本没有逐句翻译《周易》的经典释文,他采取了变通的方法,注释由物“黄裳”谈到人,突出坤卦六五居尊而能柔和谦下的品德,翻译出了此卦的精髓。

同样再如本卦:

六二:直方大,不媳无不利。

贝本译文:six in the second place means:

Straight, square, great.

Without purpose,

Yet nothing remains unfurthered.

Nature creates all beings without erring: this is its straightness. It is calm and still:this is its foursquareness. It tolerates all creatures equally: this is its greatness. Therefore it attains what is right for all without artifice or special intention. Man achieves the height of wisdom when all that he does is as self-evident as what nature does.

理本译文:the second line, divided, (shows the attribute of) being straight, square, and great. (its operation), without repeated efforts, will be in every respect advantageous.

生物不邪谓之“直”也,地体安静是其“方”也,无物不载是其“大”也。[5](P32)贝本的注释是对“直”“方”“大”的最好解释。而在理本中,却没有对其直、方、大的解释。 《周易》不仅是一部哲学著作,更是一本跨学科的著作,易道精深,含盖万有,《周易》的翻译之难,在于难以传达其字面之外的深层含义。美国学者赵自强教授曾经说过:“读已出版的《周易》英译本,只是浪费时间而已。从我的标准来看,这些译本是不及格的。”[6] 从传播学的角度来说,贝本的翻译明显好于理本,但这两个译本都有不足之处,《周易》在世界范围内更加广泛的传播还需要象、数、理专家的共同努力。

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