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浅析《周易》英译

减小字体 增大字体 作者:熊谊华,巢利斌,姚智军    来源:本站整理  发布时间:2018-6-25 12:35:57
可以追求译文感性特征。从阅读心理来说,理本的译文严肃刻板,在词语的风格上大为逊色。在贝本中,“agitated”和“ mind”,“neither”和“thither”均为押韵词,虽然,没再现原文的着词和双声叠韵,但富有意趣,在用词上用尾韵而不改变意义,措辞简明而富有想象力。

(二) 句子层面

由于英汉两种语言各自隶属不同语系,所以英汉在词法、句法乃至篇章结构等方面差异显豁、特点鲜明。英语重形合,句子中的成分如介词、连词、分词等起了这种形合的作用。英语句子往往通过扩充句子内容个附加成分来实现,逻辑关系外化,因而从句套从句,前后衔接比较紧凑,相互连接,呈现重叠的结构。而汉语重意合,没有变格、变位。汉语的结构不受形态成分的约束,汉语句子一般比较短,散句居多,前后衔接松弛,相互映衬,多以意思连接的积累式分局或独立的单据,其彼此的逻辑关系多以句序之先后加以暗示。我们抽取《渐卦》来观察。

初六:鸿渐于干,小子厉;有言,无咎。

六二:鸿渐于磐,饮食衍衍,吉。  

九三:鸿渐于陆,夫征不复,妇孕不育,凶;利御寇。  

理本译文:

The first line, divided, shows the wild geese gradually approaching the shore. A young officer (in similar circumstance) will be in a position of danger, and be spoken against; but there will be no error.

The second line, divided, shows the wild geese gradually approaching the large rocks, where they eat and drink joyfully and at ease. There will be good fortune.

The third line, divided, shows the wild geese gradually advanced to the dry plains. (it suggests also the idea of) a husband who goes on an expedition from which he doesn´t return, and of a wife who is pregnant, but will not nourish her child. There will be evil. (the case symbolized) might be advantageous in resisting plunderers.

贝本译文:

Six at the beginning means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the shore.

The young son is in danger.

There is talk. No blame.

Six in the second place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the cliff.

Eating and drinking in peace and concord.

Good fortune.

Nine in the third place means:

The wild goose gradually near the plateau.

The man goes forth and does not return.

The woman carried a child but does not bring it forth.

Misfortune.

渐卦原文平均每行14个字,语言精炼准确,短小精悍,充分显现了汉语短句散句的意合特点。而理本平均每行39个单词,将近原文长度的三倍,理本中,爻位充当了每卦每爻的主语,开头都是“the first line”,然后“the second line”,依此类推。如为阴爻,则加上the divided line,如果是阳爻,则加上the undivided line。宾语从句表达爻辞内容,其结构繁琐拖沓,冗长有余,虽严谨但略嫌欠可读性,未能反映原文的形式、内容之美。

贝本平均24个单词,把代表“阴爻”和“阳爻”的“六”和“九”直接翻译成“six"、“nine",简洁明了,在处理句子结构上,采用爻位与其表达的内容相分开的办法,如用“Six at beginning means:”开头,然后另起一行,用若彼此独立的句子或词组甚至单词来表述内容,每个句子或每个的词组或词独占一行,其间逻辑关系清楚明了,较为流畅地承载了原文的内容之美。

三、噪音处理

冗余是讯息中可预测或者说常规的内容。冗余的对立物是“熵”。冗余具有高可预测性,而得可预测性很低。所以一个讯息如果可预测性低,那么就是说“熵”值高或者说信息量大。相反如果可预测性高,那么就是冗余多或者信息量好。为达到有效的传播,两者之间应保持平衡,以抵消传播渠道中的噪音。简单说,传播渠道中噪音越多,就越需要冗余,这样就降低了信息中相对的“熵”。通过冗余来克服传播渠道中的噪音,在特定时间内可传送的信息量就会减少。

在翻译传播中,噪音可理解为“理解障碍”,有语言的、文化的、认知的、审美的等四个方面,译者通过增补,解释,替代和改写等方式,把原意解释清楚,从而完成交流目的和任务,保证有效传播。

坤卦》六五:黄裳,元吉。

理本译文:The fifth six, divided, (shows) the yellow lower garment. There will be great good fortune.

理本注:ellow´ is one of the five ´correct´ colors, and the color of the earth.´´The lower garment´ is a symbol of humanity. The fifth line is the seat of honor. If its occupant possess the qualities indicated, he will be greatly fortunate.

贝本译文:Six in the fifth place means:

A yellow lower garment brings supreme good fortune.

贝本注:

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